Examining material after layout or in its final format to correct errors in textual and visual elements. The material may be read in isolation or against a previous version. It includes checking for:
· adherence to design
· minor mechanical errors (such as spelling mistakes or deviations from style sheet)
· consistency and accuracy of elements in the material (such as cross-references, running heads, captions, web page heading tags, hyperlinks, and metadata)
It may also include:
· distinguishing between printer's, designer's, or programmer's errors and writer's or editor's alterations
· flagging or checking locations of art
· inserting page numbers or checking them against content and page references
Please note that proofreading is checking a work after editing; it is not a substitute for editing.
Checking the accuracy of facts, citations, and quotes by referring to the writer's original sources or to other authoritative sources.
Also known as citation checking or reference checking.
Editing to ensure correctness, accuracy, consistency, and completeness. It includes:
· editing for grammar, spelling, punctuation, and usage
· checking for consistency and continuity of mechanics and facts, including anachronisms, character names, and relationships
· editing tables, figures, and lists
· notifying designers of any unusual production requirements
· developing a style sheet or following one that is provided
· correcting or querying general information that should be checked for accuracy
It may also include:
· marking levels of headings and the approximate placement of art
· Canadianizing or other localizing
· converting measurements
· providing or changing the system of citations
· editing indexes
· obtaining or listing permissions needed
· checking front matter, back matter, and cover copy
· checking web links
Note that "copy editing" is often loosely used to include stylistic editing, structural editing, fact checking, or proofreading. Editors Canada uses it only as defined above.
Assessing and shaping draft material to improve its organization and content. Changes may be suggested to or drafted for the writer. Structural editing may include:
Also known as substantive editing, manuscript editing, content editing, or developmental editing.
Editing to clarify meaning, ensure coherence and flow, and refine the language. It includes:
· eliminating jargon, clichés, and euphemisms
· establishing or maintaining the language level appropriate for the intended audience, medium, and purpose
· adjusting the length and structure of sentences and paragraphs
· establishing or maintaining tone, mood, style, and authorial voice or level of formality
Also known as line editing (which may also include copy editing).
Assessing the content and organization of a work, and commenting in depth on such factors as characterization, dialogue, setting, plot, structure, subject relevance, believability, research required, and potential legal issues.
It also involves evaluating:
· technique and style
· reading level
· audience appropriateness
It may include providing detailed comments on the marketability of the work and suggesting ways to make it more marketable. This evaluation is intended to guide the writer or publisher through the process of rewriting or editing the work.
Also known as critiquing.
Editing and updating the content of web pages, including text, images, and links. It includes:
· checking links to ensure they point to the right places
· checking that link text accurately reflects where the link goes
· reorganizing or revising print copy for the web
· editing or writing web copy according to web-writing best practices
· proofreading final websites and checking for consistency on all site elements
· identifying potential copyright issues
It may also include:
· reviewing websites on multiple platforms (such as ensuring links are substantial enough for touchscreen users)
· advising on accessibility issues
· reviewing or creating information architecture
· implementing changes using a content management system
Recreating a work, published or unpublished, from one language into another. Also reviewing a translation for overall consistency or tone as well as accuracy.
Definitions and descriptions based on Editors Canada and Editorial Freelancers Association guidelines.